April's Birthstone: DiamondShe who from April dates her years,
Diamonds shall wear, lest bitter tears
For vain repentance flow; this stone,
Emblem for innocense is known.
Diamond is the hardest mineral that is found on this planet. The stone has a hardness of 10 on the Mohs scale and it is four times harder than the members of the Corundum group, Ruby and Sapphire, that actually have a hardness of 9 on the Mohs scale. Diamonds consist of just one element, carbon (C), this is the same element that makes up the chemical composition of Graphite and Coal, but Diamonds are formed under extreme heat and extreme pressure thus creating the crystal structure of Diamond.
When a Diamond is mentioned almost everyone thinks of beautiful transparent stones that display an incredible 'fire' within when they are held up to the light, a rainbow of colours captured in one single stone. But there are many coloured Diamonds that are created by trace element of for example Nitrogen (Yellow) and Borium (Blue). There are 25 elements that will influence the colour of a Diamond. The price of Diamonds is related to the four C's, Cut, Colour, Clarity and Carat, the four C's and Diamond Classification will be explained further on on this page. Diamonds are found in the colours Yellow, Blue, Pink, Purple, Brown, Green and even Black, although the Black Diamond of gemstone quality is very rare. Some Diamonds display fluorescence, this means that they will glow in the dark.
The name Diamond is derived from the Greek word 'adamao', which means 'invincible'. The word 'adamas' has been used for centuries to describe the hardest substance on the planet, although it is not clear at which time this name became synonymous with the Diamond. Others say the name Diamond is derived from the Sanskrit word for Deity 'dyu'. The Diamond is also called the King of Gemstones and in India this stone is called Vajra which means bolt of lightning.
Diamonds have been associated with Magick since the beginning of times and for centuries rough stones were used as talismans, and most of the time they were not worn by their owners. Some natural eight sided crystals were placed in rings and worn. But the first jewellery containing Diamonds are not found until 13th century Europe. The oldest example that is known to us now, is an 11th century crown laid in with raw Diamonds from the Hungarian royal family. But the use of Diamonds had been long known before the Middle Ages. Pliny the Elder, who lived from 23 to 79 in Rome, wrote about the healing and magical powers of this stone. After the 4th century until the beginning of the 13the century the Diamond disappeared, but this King of the Gemstones was not forgotten. Now Diamonds are set in engagement rings and wedding rings as a token of a durable, faithful and pure love.
In gemstone therapy Diamonds are used to treat ailments of the psyche, you could think of depressions but also other diseases of the psyche can be healed with this stone. The Diamond is a very potent stone, that will act as an amplifier, it conducts energy and may be used to strengthen the energies of other gemstones, but all by itself this stone can accomplish great things. It may be used as a therapy stone for serious diseases like leukaemia, but you should take into account that this stone may only be used as a support next to the regular therapy! Diseases like this should not be ignored and one should always consult a physician! The Diamond may also be used in treating ailments of the brain; this stone will protect its wearer against stroke and brain haemorrhages, and it also makes sure that both parts of the brain are working together harmoniously. Diamonds may also be used to treat fractures in the skull, but one should take into account that rest is a good healer, but the Diamond will speed up the healing process. Diamond diminishes negative emotions like jealousy and anger, and this stone has also been proven very helpful for those that suffer from self consciousness, because it will provide its wearer with will power, self-assurance and self-confidence. Diamonds stimulate sexuality and may therefore be used to diminish sexual problems and heal them. In magic the Diamond is used to promote healing, courage and peace. Mediations are lead to a higher level when one wears this King of the Gemstones.
The classification of Diamonds is done by observing the Four C's like I have mentioned in the previous chapter. The Four C's stand for Colour, Carat, Clarity and Cut. To explain the classification of Diamonds you will have to know how these four C's are judged.
The colour of a Diamond is judged according to the colours on the scale below. This colour scale has been made by the Gemmological Institute of America, abbreviated to GIA, and it describes the colour varieties between white and yellow.
The weight of Diamonds, just like other Gemstones, is measured in Carats, one Carat is 0,2 grams and it is divided up into 100 points. The Carat of Gemstones is different from the Carat of Gold.
The clarity of Diamonds is also very important for the value of this King of the Gemstones, the clarity is judged by a professional with a loupe that magnifies 10x in day light. While judging the clarity the professional looks at the blemishes, their position and character, inside the stone. These blemishes are bubbles, clefts, uncrystallised carbon and other inclusions.
The cut of the Diamond is important for the value of the stone as well, because of the cut, the stone displays the fire. The most well known cut of Diamonds is the Brilliant cut, that displays 57 facets. Other well known cuts are: Baguette, Emeraude, Marquise and Pendeloque.